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Biology, Botany and Agriculture Courseware
General Description for Module Level

Introduction


EduSelf Multimedia Publishers, Inc. takes pride in presenting this computerized library on the subjects of water, plant, soil, irrigation, and fertilization. The topics below constitute the courseware modules in Biology, Botany, and Agriculture developed and produced by EduSelf.

Each module contains an extensive database of scientific articles on the above subjects as well as tables of specific data to assist the student in solving problems and taking the quizzes presented in the modules. Each module also contains a comprehensive glossary of scientific terms the student may encounter while working with the various subjects. Thus, each module provides an additional tool for the student who wants to supplement, enrich, and delve more deeply into the specific subject matter.

For their convenience, students may select articles by subject, author, or alphabetical sequence; students may access glossaries by subject or alphabetical sequence. We hope that students find the animations, caricatures, music - all valid educational tools - amusing and useful in their quest for knowledge!

Click below on each courseware title to see its general description:
  1. Water & Plant Relationship, cat. No. ES 001 AG
  2. Soil & Water Relationship, cat. No. ES 002 AG
  3. Plant Needs, cat. No. ES 003 AG
  4. Introduction to Fertilization, cat. No. ES 011 AG
  5. Fertilizers, cat. No. ES 012 AG
  6. How to Fertigate, cat. No. ES 013 AG
  7. Fertilization, cat no. ES 014 AG
  8. Water Management, cat. No. ES 021 AG

  9. Irrigation Systems, cat. No. ES 022 AG

10. Better Plants & Gardens
11. Database & Glossary




 




1. Water & Plant Relationship, cat. No. ES 001 AG

This courseware module describes the role of water in plants, particularly in cellular life processes and photosynthesis. The mechanisms by which plants absorb, transport, and lose water are thoroughly explained using animations and simulations. This courseware module stresses the importance of water to the plant and the functions of water in the plant. The water-plant relationship constitutes one of the basic subjects of agriculture studies. The module shows water absorption by the roots, transport from the roots through the vascular system to the leaves, and the evaporation process. In addition, it gives some information about irrigation needs according to water losses. The user needs no previous agricultural knowledge.

Part 1 - Screen Content
Water in the cell
Water importance: general
Water: a substance important to any form of life
Cell parts
Turgor pressure and the cell
Wilting and recovering
Osmosis in the plant

Water functions in the plant

Water functions in the plant: general
Mineral absorption
Photosynthesis
Water and civilization
Water and plant growth
Water and plant growth: division and elongation

Water movement in the plant
Transpiration
Water in the root: absorption
Water in the root: root types
Water in the root: mineral and salts
Water in the vascular system

Water losses from the plant
Water losses from the plant: general
Transpiration
Transpiration and stomata
Transpiration and stomata: influence of light
Evaporation
Evapotranspiration
What affects evapotranspiration?
Drought-resistant plants
Quantities of water losses

Irrigation and plant needs
Irrigation and plant needs: general
Water requirement
Method of irrigation

Appendix
Osmosis and water potential: membranes
Osmosis and water potential: different concentrations
Osmosis and water potential within the plant


Part 2 - Scientific Background

Water in the Plant - by Dr. Yosef Noy
The plant
The plant cell
Osmosis
Transportation tissues
The root
Water absorption and translocation
Transpiration process
Factors affecting transpiration
Drought adaptation
The leaf
The photosynthesis process
Water use by crops

Plant-Water Relationship - by Dr. P.M. Neumann
Introduction
Physical properties of water
Understanding plant-water potential
Water relationship in whole plants
Root structure, growth, and function in water absorption
Factors controlling stomatal transpiration
Practical methods for measuring plant-water status
Improving plant-water status


Water Requirements of Crops and Irrigation Rates - by Dr. Dov Nir and Dr. Herman J. Finkel
General
Methods of determining potential evapotranspiration
Comparison of the methods
Crop factor
Irrigation efficiency


2. Soil & Water Relationship, cat. No. ES 002 AG

This courseware module explains the importance of nutrients in plant growth as well as the processes of plant life. The module shows how deficiency in certain nutrients affects plants. It also shows the different sources and uptake of nutrients by plants. In addition, it explains the photosynthesis and respiration processes needed for plant life. This courseware module begins with an explanation of the various environmental factors and nutrients needed by a plant to enable normal development. Interactive simulation assists in explaining the concept of the "limiting factor." A simulated biology laboratory demonstrates the sixteen essential elements, nutrients, and their role within the plant. The module uses color pictures and graphics to present the visual recognition and effect of essential nutrient deficiencies in plants.

Part 1 - Screen Content

Soil Characteristics and types
Soil, plant, and water relationship
What is soil?
Soil composition
Soil texture: particle size
Soil texture: fraction types
Soil texture: triangle diagram
Soil structure
Soil pores

States of water in the soil
Soil: volume and mass relationship
Determining soil wetness
States of water in the soil: saturation
States of water in the soil: field capacity
States of water in the soil: permanent wilting point
Available water
Mechanisms of water retention
Absorption
Capillarity
Water retention curve
Water retention in soil

Water movement in the soil
Movement of water in the soil: general
Infiltration rate in soil
Saturated flow in the soil
Unsaturated flow in the soil
Unsaturated flow in the soil: nature and timing
Unsaturated flow: moisture gradient and gravitation

Soil solution
Soil solution: general
Soil solution and fertigation
Soil solution and minerals
Soil solution and colloid surfaces
Soil solution and humus reserve
Soil solution and leaching
Soil solution and nutrients reaching the roots
Soil acidity

Part 2 - Scientific Background


Soil-Water Relationship - by Dr. Israela Ravina
Mechanical composition of the soil
The clay minerals
Soil-water
Movement of soil-water
Measurement of soil-water
Soil structure and aeration

3. Plant Needs, cat. No. ES 003 AG

This courseware module explains the importance of nutrients in plant growth as well as the processes of plant life. The module shows how deficiency in certain nutrients affects plants. It also shows the different sources and uptake of nutrients by plants. In addition, it explains the photosynthesis and respiration processes needed for plant life. This courseware module begins with an explanation of the various environmental factors and nutrients needed by a plant to enable normal development. Interactive simulation assists in explaining the concept of the "limiting factor." A simulated biology laboratory demonstrates the sixteen essential elements, nutrients, and their role within the plant. The module uses color pictures and graphics to present the visual recognition and effect of essential nutrient deficiencies in plants.

Part 1 - Screen Content


What do plants need?
The plant and its environment
Does a plant ever breathe?
Does a plant ever eat solid food?
The plantís needs
The plant processes: food
The plant processes: respiration
Chemical elements involved in photosynthesis
Chloroplast, the site of photosynthesis
Photosynthesis summary

The limiting factor
How much at each stage
How much of each factor
The limiting factor
The absence of adverse conditions
Summary: the limiting factor

The 16 essential elements
The need for oxygen, carbon and hydrogen
Chemical composition of the plant
The 16 essential elements
Importance of the 16 elements
Soil nutrients: groups

Soil nutrients' role
Soil nutrients' role and importance
N - nitrogen role in the plant: general
N - nitrogen role in the plant: deficiency effect
P - phosphorus role in the plant
K - potassium role in the plant
Ca - calcium role in the plant
Mg - magnesium role in the plant
S - sulfur role in the plant
Zn - zinc role in the plant
Fe - iron role in the plant
Mn - manganese role in the plant
Cu - copper role in the plant
B - boron role in the plant
Cl - chlorine role in the plant
Mo - molybdenum role in the plant
16 nutrients: summary

Nutrients in the soil
Nutrients in the soil: general
Soil minerals
Colloidal surfaces
Humus reserve
Nitrogen forms in the soil
Nitrogen fixation
Organic nitrogen
Ammonification
Nitrification
Nitrate leaching
Denitrification
Phosphorus in the soil
Phosphorus in the soil solution
Precipitated (insoluble) phosphate
Phosphorus and soil minerals
Phosphorus and colloidal particles
Organic Phosphorus
Labile phosphate
Potassium in the soil
Calcium in the soil - origin
Calcium in the soil - leaching
Magnesium in the soil
Sulfur in the soil
Soil acidity
ph effect on micronutrients' availability
Nutrients in the soil: summary

Nutrients uptake
Uptake of nutrients from the soil
Passive absorption of nutrients
Active absorption of nutrients
Nutrients uptake: summary
Lesson summary

Part 2 - Scientific background

Soil Mineralogy and Chemistry - by Dr. Yosef Noy
Soil mineralogy and chemistry
The soil solution
Hydrogen ion concentration
Growth of plants
Soil productivity
Plant nutrients
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Secondary essential nutrient elements
Micronutrients
Soil acidity and liming
Soil salinity
Osmotic tension
Electrical conductivity
Sodium and boron hazards
Plant and soil analysis
Fertilizer application
Organic manures
The processing of organic manure

Soil Salinity & Water Quality - by Dr. Israela Ravina

Saline soils
Water quality

4. Introduction to Fertilization, cat. no. ES 011 AG

This module introduces the concept of fertilization and its importance for plants and yields. The module demonstrates conventional fertilization methods, their advantages and limitations. The student observes improvements to conventional methods and learns the modern method of fertilizing, fertigation, through the irrigation system. The module demonstrates the nature of fertigation, its expected benefits as well as its limitations and drawbacks. The course also includes an example of successful greenhouse fertigation. Using a special interactive demonstration, the student can examine the efficiency of each fertilization method, and discovers that fertigation is the most modern and efficient one. Anyone who wants to study or practice fertilization will benefit from this module.

Part 1 - Screen Content

Why should we fertilize?

Undernourishment
Fertilizers increase yields
Increasing the worldís food production
Fertilizing and "organic" food
Fertilizing and environmental pollution
Laws of cautious fertilization

Plant needs
Plant needs: general
Plant needs: amounts
Optimal uptake of nutrients
The farmerís goal: efficient fertilization
Conditions for efficient fertilization
Conventional fertilization methods: cost
Conventional fertilization methods: general
Application of solid fertilizers
Broadcast methods
Banded method
Application of fluid fertilizers
Conventional fertilization methods cost
Problems of conventional methods
Fertilizer cost and interest
Plantís requirements
Plantís requirements: timing and amount of fertilization
Plantís requirements: fertilization in the right place
Fertilization uniformity
Fertilizer activation
Fertilizer losses
Application cost: equipment and labor
Improvements to conventional fertilization methods
Controlled release fertilizer
Controlled release fertilizer:graph
Aerial fertilization
Fertigation

Introduction to fertigation
What does fertigation mean?
Fertigation installation: fertilizer tank
Fertigation in action

Expected benefits of fertigation
Fertigation according to plant requirements
Fertigation at the right time
Fertigation in the right amount and at the right time
Fertigation in the right place
Fertigation benefits: a simple system
Fertigation system: additional benefits
Fertigation benefits: enhanced uniformity
Fertigation benefits: immediate activation
Fertigation benefits: minimal fertilizer losses
Fertigation benefits: minimal pollution
Fertigation benefits: greater crop yield
Fertigation benefits: better quality and quantity

Fertigation limitations and risks
Fertilizers can be harmful!
Risks to humans
Risks to equipment
Environmental hazards
Limitations of the new system
Cost of equipment
Fertilizer cost and availability
Cost of training
Dependence on the irrigation system
Dependence on irrigation system maintenance

Part 2 - Scientific Background

Soil, Mineralogy, and Chemistry - by Dr. Yosef Noy
Soil, mineralogy, and chemistry
The soil solution
Hydrogen ion concentration
Growth of plants
Soil productivity
Plant nutrients
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Secondary essential nutrient elements
Micronutrients
Soil acidity and liming
Soil salinity
Osmotic tension
Electrical conductivity
Sodium and boron hazards
Plant and soil analysis
Fertilizer application
Organic manures
The processing of organic manures

Soil Salinity & Water Quality - by Dr. Israela Ravina
Saline Soils
Water quality

5. Fertilizers, cat. no. ES 012 AG

This courseware module describes the numerous fertilizer types, their characteristics, and suitability for various methods of fertilization - especially fertigation. The module also describes the process by which plants absorb fertilizers and the role of fertilizers in the plantís life processes. The student learns these subjects through animations and simulations. The module describes the nature of fertilizers and their nutrient content. In addition, it explains how to calculate nutrient content in a fertilizer, and the amount of fertilizer needed to supply crops with their growth requirements. Anyone interested in purchasing and using fertilizers will find this information essential.

Part 1 - Screen Content


Why Fertilize?
Goals of this lesson
Chapter contents
Introduction
The plantís needs
The limiting factor
The absence of adverse conditions
The need for oxygen, carbon and hydrogen
The 16 essential elements
The importance of the 16 essential elements
Nutrients in the soil
Nutrients uptake
The need to add nutrients
The need to fertilize: summary

What are fertilizers?
Definition of fertilizers
Fertilizers as salts
Fertilizers according to nutrient content
Fertilizer grade
Fertilizer ratio
Examples of fertilizer ratios
Fertilizer forms
Solid fertilizers
Advantages/disadvantages of solid fertilizers
Liquid fertilizers
Advantages/disadvantages of liquid fertilizers
Suspension fertilizers
Gaseous fertilizers (ammonia)

Fertilizer characteristics
Fertilizer characteristics: general
ph effect of fertilizers
ph effect on element availability
Corrosiveness
Evaporation
Hygroscopicity
Fertilizer solubility
Mixed liquid fertilizers

How much fertilizer

Nitrogen fertilizers
Ammonia fertilizer
Ammonium fertilizer
Nitrate fertilizer
Urea fertilizer
Urea ammonification and hydrolysis processes
Urea nitrification
Urea fertilizer solubility
Slow release nitrogen compounds
Phosphorus fertilizers
Potassium fertilizers
Secondary fertilizers
Micronutrient fertilizers
How much fertilizer




Lesson summary

Part 2 - Scientific Background

Soil Mineralogy and Chemistry - by Dr. Yosef Noy

Soil mineralogy and chemistry
The soil solution
Hydrogen ion concentration
Growth of plants
Soil productivity
Plant nutrients
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Secondary essential nutrient elements
Micronutrients
Soil acidity and liming
Soil salinity
Osmotic tension
Electrical conductivity
Sodium and boron hazards
Plant and soil analysis
Fertilizer application
Organic manures
The processing of organic manure

Soil Salinity & Water Quality - by Dr. Israela Ravina
Saline soils
Water quality

6. How to Fertigate, cat. no. ES 013 AG

 Fertigation, the modern method of fertilizing, works through the irrigation system. This module reviews the concept, basic principles, benefits, and drawbacks of the fertigation method. The module discusses the principles and problems of injecting fertilizer into the irrigation water, and shows the equipment required - i.e., tanks, injectors, and auxiliary equipment. It demonstrates equipment installation, operation, and maintenance using extensive animation and activity sequences. This module also gives the student the basic tools for selecting and operating system components; it lists the various considerations and rules for optimal operation of the fertigation system. Interactive exercises involve the student in selection of appropriate equipment - according to crop types, the available irrigation system, field position, and ease of operation. The student also learns safety considerations associated with fertigation.

Part 1 - Screen Content



Introduction
What does fertigation mean? (Fertilization via irrigation)
Uniform fertilizer distribution

Fertilizer Injection
Fertilizer injection - general
Injection equipment classification
Fertilizer fed by gravity
Constant fertilizer flow
Constant fertilizer flow: vent tube
Constant fertilizer flow: float valve
Differential pressure system in action
Differential pressure system: a bladder in the tank
A comparison between variations
The principle and operation of the Venture device
Injection by positive pressure

Pumps and motors
Pumps and motors: general
Check valves
The piston pump
The diaphragm pump
Pumps driven by motor
A piston pump with an hydraulic motor
Operation and injection pressure by hydraulic pumps

Comparison of injector types

Safety measures in fertigation
Risks to humans
Risks to equipment
Environmental hazards

Part 2 - Scientific Background

Fertigation Principles & Practice - by Dr. Dan Scheuer and Dr. Jorge Tartsitsky
Introduction
Fertigation benefits and limitations
Fertigation equipment
Fertigation equipment selection
Ancillary equipment - protective devices
Installation
Fertigation system operation
Maintenance
Fertigation scheduling


7. Fertilization, cat no. ES 014 AG

 The considerations and rules to be followed in planning fertilization constitute the subject matter of this courseware module. The module presents the characteristics of conventional and modern fertilization methods, fertility evaluation, and considerations for selecting fertilizers. The student learns fertilizer selection, the logic used in its selection (to match crop needs), and application methods - through animations and simulations. The module also teaches how to calculate nutrient content in fertilizers and the amount of fertilizer to be applied. This courseware also discusses the factors affecting fertilizer efficiency and some methods of fertility evaluation

Part 1 - Screen Content



Fertilizer application

Goals of this courseware module
The need to add nutrients
Fertilizer forms
Fertilizer characteristics
Application of fertilizers
Broadcasting
Advantages of broadcasting
Banding
Fertigation
Foliar spraying
Manual application
Application from the air
Fertilizing machines
Irrigation and fertilizers
Time of application
Time of application: basal dressing
Time of application: top dressing
Time of application: split dressing

Fertilizer efficiency
Soil characteristics
Salt index
Movement of fertilizer materials in the soil
Soil temperature
Carry-over effect
Crop characteristics

Fertility evaluation
Soil fertility evaluation
Plant systems
N - nitrogen in the plant
P - phosphorus in the plant
K - potassium in the plant
Mg - magnesium in the plant
S - sulfur in the plant
Fe - iron in the plant
B - boron in the plant
Cl - chlorine in the plant
Plant symptoms: identification of nutrient
Plant testing: sampling
Plant testing: plant tissue test
Plant testing: plant tissue analysis
Soil testing
Soil testing: augers and soil sampling
Soil testing: soil sample preparation
Soil testing: solution sampling
Soil testing: laboratory analysis
Water testing: water sources, sampling and analysis
Fertility evaluation: interpretation of results

Selecting fertilizers
Selecting the right fertilizer
How much fertilizer

Part 2 - Scientific Background

Soil Mineralogy and Chemistry - by Dr. Yosef Noy

Soil mineralogy and chemistry
The soil solution
Hydrogen ion concentration
Growth of plants
Soil productivity
Plant nutrients
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Secondary essential nutrient elements
Micronutrients
Soil acidity and liming
Soil salinity
Osmotic tension
Electrical conductivity
Sodium and boron hazards
Plant and soil analysis
Fertilizer application
Organic manures
The processing of organic manure

Fertility, Fertilizers and Fertilization - by Dr Jorge Tartsitsky
Fertility evaluation
Crop tests
Fertilizers
Fertilization

 

8. Water Management, cat. no. ES 021 AG

This courseware module introduces the concepts and practices of water management. The module presents the numerous factors that need to be considered during water management design - climatic, soil, plant factors - and explains how each factor affects water management. It also describes the methods the farmer uses to determine the plantís water requirements - based on soil factors and plant properties. The farmer can control the cropís use and consumption of water. The module also teaches the student how to calculate irrigation doses and irrigation periods, taking into account agrotechnical and economical factors to make the most efficient use of available water resources. An interactive exercise summarizes the rules of when and how much to irrigate.

This courseware module demonstrates the effect of correct irrigation on the quantity and quality of the crop. It also introduces the concept of irrigation efficiency and how to take it into account during the water management design process. The student learns to design water management according to the type of crop, the soil, climatic factors, and irrigation methods.

Part 1 - Screen Content


Climatic factors

Water management planning
Factors in water management planning
Water consumption by the plant
Evapotranspiration
What affects evapotranspiration
Estimation of evaporation rate
The evaporation coefficient
Water consumption estimation by evaporation pan method
Estimation of water consumption by using a formula

Soil factors
Soil composition
Soil texture
Soil pores
Soil textures, soil porosity and soil water capacity
The wetness of the soil
Dry bulk density of soil
Water states in the soil
The energy states of water in the soil
Retention forces or water potential of the soil
Available water
The relationship between water potential and soil texture

Plant factors
Depth of the root system
The percentage of wet soil surface
The critical point
Water consumption

Water Management
Net application amount
Amount of water available
Next maximum available water
Net actual application amount
Irrigation interval - IR
Correction of net actual application amount
Irrigation efficiency
Gross application amount

Part 2 - Scientific Background

Irrigation Management and Scheduling - by Dr. Ilan Amir
Introduction
Scheduling of water amounts
The computerized aid for the displacement policy
The displacement policy
Local displacement policy
Reduction of water amounts for certain crops
Relative reduction policy
Case study
Conclusions

Irrigation of Cotton - by Yaakov Ayalon

Introduction
Climate
Soil
The cotton plant
Water requirements of cotton
Influence of water regime on the cotton
Irrigation procedures
Irrigation methods

Irrigation of Sugar Crops - by Dr. Herman J. Finkel
Sugar cane
Sugar beets

Irrigation of Oil Crops - by Dr. Shaul Feldman
Peanuts
Safflower
Sunflower

Irrigation of Cereal Crops - by Dr. Herman J. Finkel
Rice
Wheat
Corn

Irrigation of Alfalfa - by Dr. Herman J. Finkel
Introduction
Root system
Water requirements
Water quality
Irrigation methods

Irrigation of Citrus - by Dr. Herman J. Finkel
Introduction
Characteristics of the root system
Water requirements of citrus: general
Moisture stress in citrus
When to irrigate
Irrigation methods
Water quality


9. Irrigation Systems, cat. no. ES 022 AG

This courseware module begins with a presentation of historical and cultural developments in irrigation. The module then introduces the concept of irrigation and its benefits for plants. The major types of irrigation systems (traditional furrow, sprinklers, micro-sprinklers, and drippers) are presented and evaluated in terms of their merits and limitations. This module gives the student the basic knowledge and practical tools needed to select a suitable irrigation system for crops - according to the type of soil, type of crop, climatic factors, and available sources of water. The module also takes into account economic considerations.

Part 1 - Screen Content



Soil Properties
Water is life
The soil - a "reservoir of water"
Irrigation
Soil properties
Soil composition
Soil texture
Soil pores
Moisture front
Infiltration
Soil-water retention

Water transporation methods
Transportation methods
Irrigation by gravitation
Irrigation by gravitation: pipes
Irrigation under pressure

Irrigation by gravitation
Methods of water distribution
Leveled beds
Leveled beds according to terrain contours
Furrow irrigation
The number of furrows and the space between them
Furrow construction and shape
Water flow in the furrows

Irrigation under pressure
Methods of water distribution
Development of the sprinkler method
Principles of sprinkler operation
Wetness distribution pattern
Wetness overlap
Wind effect
Drip irrigation
Dropper nets
The dropper
Water distribution in the soil
Filtration and cleanliness
Micro-sprayers: principle of water distribution
Micro-sprinklers

Comparison of methods
Criteria for comparison of irrigation methods
Comparison of irrigation methods
Partial wetting and economy of water
Partial wetting and soil aeration
Access to the field
Protection from climatic hazards
Wind effect on irrigation
Fertigation
Topography and irrigation under pressure
Marginal soils
Use of effluent water
Use of saline water for irrigation

Part 2 - Scientific Background

Sprinkler Irrigation - by Dr. Amnion Benumb
Types of sprinkler systems
Sprinkler types and their characteristics
Sprinkler laterals
Submains and mains
Design of a sprinkler system
Sprinkler system efficiency

Drip Irrigation - by Dr. Dov Nir
Introduction
Hydraulics of drip systems
Design of drip irrigation systems
The fertilizer applicator
General considerations
Units and notation

Gravity Irrigation - by Dr. Herman J. Finkel
Introduction
Furrow irrigation
Border irrigation

Criteria for the Choice of Irrigation Method - by Dr. Dov Nir and Dr. Herman J. Finkel
Introduction
Water supply
Topography
Climate
Soils
Crops
The human factor
Economics and Cost of Irrigation - by Dr. Dov Nir
Introduction
Steps in economic analysis
Enumeration and evaluation of costs and benefits
Allocation of costs
Bearing the cost


Project Development credits


Program Manager and Publisher
Mario Nissim Halfon
Project Manager
Ifat Halfon

Scriptwriters
Dr. Jorge Tartsitsky
Dr. Joseph Noy
Elimelech Sappir, M.Sc.
Dan Scheuer, M.Sc.

Educational Designers
Yuval Tzur
David Holtzman
Tova Amitai
Varda Cohen-Liphshitz
Rami Halfon

Narrator
Irving Kaplan

Graphics Designer
Revital Keissar

Animators/Artists
Inna Habass
Cornelis Peter Ellerbroek
Eilat Gratsch

Programmers
David Holtzman
Ron Keynan
Rafi Halfon
Natalie Startseva

Audio/ Music Effects
Mark Toledano
Rami Halfon


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